What is Myostatin?

First and foremost, myostatin is a myokine.  Myokines are just one of hundreds of different types of cytokines, or small proteins.  Cell signaling and commands are reliant on these smaller sized proteins. So, following along logically, myostatin is a protein that is inherently in charge of cellular signaling.  

While myostatin is found in other animals as well, it’s located in the MSTN gene in human beings.  The medical community has worked out enough of the Human Proteome Project to know that myostatin is a part of the TGF-β, or transforming growth factor beta, protein family.  Unique from the other families of proteins, the TGF-β family is derived from white blood cells, exclusively.

Growth Differentiation Factor 8
Each myokine has an individual uniqueness and purpose.  Myostatin is also know as the growth differentiation factor 8, or GDF-8.  Growth differentiation factor proteins are those that directly influence development of cells in the body.  Some may dictate muscle strength and cell growth while others can influence the strength of internal organs.

GDF-8, or myostatin, is specifically in charge of the cellular signaling that influences and dictates muscle mass.  Note that mass and strength might be related but aren’t technically the same thing. GDF-8 has been the subject of many research projects over the past couple of decades, most of which revolve around the idea that GDF-8 supplementation can be leveraged to help humans or animals with naturally occurring deficiencies of myostatin.

Though GDF-8/myostatin was discovered in the ‘90s, it wasn’t until after the new millennium started that the medical community was able to understand what it was used for.  In 2001, a team from the Genetics Institute in Cambridge, MA observed that GDF-8 did in fact “antagonize biological activity by inhibiting receptor binding.”  The groundwork was laid for further myostatin observation and use case exploration. By the time 2010 rolled around, we were confident that myostatin was directly responsible for muscle mass growth.  That’s when things got a little more heavy…

In September of 2010, a team from the Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy of the Medical College located in Augusta, Georgia explored the possibility that myostatin could be leveraged to repair and regenerate muscle and bone after serious injury.  The study’s results were largely conclusive, showing the potential that myostatin had when it came to improving wound repair. Surely this caught the attention of big pharmaceutical companies around the world.

More recent studies are more focused on the mechanisms of activation.  Understanding exactly how the GDF-8 is activated within the system of an animal, or a human, will allow for streamlined application.  Improving the speed of efficacy could theoretically speed the healing process in injured individuals. One of the most recent studies completed seems to have figured out the molecular characterization of latent GDF8, revealing the mechanisms of activation.  This breakthrough is sure to transform the future of myostatin based medications and supplements forever.


1 “MSTN Gene – Genetics Home Reference – NIH.” U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/MSTN.

2 Thies, R S, et al. “GDF-8 Propeptide Binds to GDF-8 and Antagonizes Biological Activity by Inhibiting GDF-8 Receptor Binding.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2001, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11519824.

3 Hamrick, M W, et al. “Recombinant Myostatin (GDF-8) Propeptide Enhances the Repair and Regeneration of Both Muscle and Bone in a Model of Deep Penetrant Musculoskeletal Injury.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Sept. 2010, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20173658.

4 Walker, R G, et al. “Molecular Characterization of Latent GDF8 Reveals Mechanisms of Activation.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 30 Jan. 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29348202.

What is ACE-031?

First and foremost, ACE-031 is a decoy receptor.  We can’t just leave you hanging there so let’s first delve into what decoy receptors are and how they function so that you can have a better grasp on the specifics of ACE-031.

The primary function of a decoy receptor is to be able to recognize the growth factor specifics without actually doing any of the typical receptor signaling that usually occurs.  We’ve talked about receptors before and their ability to be the shot callers and traffic directors for growth hormones. Well, decoy receptors are synthetic cousins that inhibit signal calling all together by preventing receptors from binding to their ligands and vice versa.

So What About ACE-031?

ACE-031 is a laboratory engineered decoy receptor.  The primary reason for being? Treating dying children suffering from muscular dystrophy.  Understand that myostatin is the naturally occurring substance in the body that regulates muscle growth.  Leveraging ACE-031 to bind to myostatin particles will prevent those same particles from finding their way to their natural partner, the native receptor found in muscle membrane.  Limiting the binding will increase muscle growth by removing the excess of muscle growth-limiting signals.

Only recently proven to be effective in this realm of work, ACE-031 research projects are taking off like wildfire around the world.  Even low dosing has proven to be beneficial with no adverse side effects, leading researchers to believe we can leverage ACE-031 to cure patients of varying degrees of muscular dystrophy entirely.

Promoting Other Muscle Growth

Treating patients with muscular dystrophy isn’t the only intended purpose behind the influx of ACE-031 research.  Think of some of the most important muscles in your body. Consider beyond your rock hard abs and God-like biceps and quads.  Your heart, your masseter, and even the uterus can be overlooked while being some of the most important muscles in the human body.

If ACE-031 can help cure muscular dystrophy, then why would it stop there?  As recently as last August, extremely thorough studies have show promising results regarding the use of ACE-031 (ActRIIB) when it comes to cardiac function and heart health.  Dozens to hundreds of diseases decrease cardiac strength and there is a very real possibility that ACE-031 can be leveraged in the battle against these diseases.

The masseter is the muscle that controls the jaws of mammals.  The average human has something like 200 pounds of strength or pressure when biting down.  Some people suffer gruesome injuries while others struggle with cancer that may deteriorate or even require removal of this muscle; Sometimes the entire jaw.  One of the earliest published reports of ACE-031 study mentions the impressive muscle growth recognized in the jaw area of aged mice, back in 2014.

As for the uterus, thousands of women struggle to give birth every single year.  A variety of deficiencies can prevent a woman from having a natural birth, requiring a cesarean section in order to save both lives.  A frequent issue is that the woman’s uterus simply isn’t strong enough to push out the infant. Future studies will likely prove the benefits of short-term ACE-031 dosing when heading in to labor!


1 Attie, K M, et al. “A Single Ascending-Dose Study of Muscle Regulator ACE-031 in Healthy Volunteers.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Mar. 2013, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23169607.

2 Wen Guo, Karol M Pencina, Thiago Gagliano-Jucá, Ravi Jasuja, Nancy Morris, Karyn E O’Connell, Susan Westmoreland, and Shalender Bhasin, et al. “Effects of an ActRIIB.Fc Ligand Trap on Cardiac Function in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Male Rhesus Macaques.” Journal of Endocrine Science., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Aug. 2018, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6041778/.

3 Phonepasong Arounleut, Peter Bialek, Li-Fang Liang, Sunil Upadhyay, Sadanand Fulzele, Maribeth Johnson, Mohammed Elsalanty, Carlos M. Isales, and Mark W. Hamrick, et al. “A Myostatin Inhibitor (Propeptide-Fc) Increases Muscle Mass and Muscle Fiber Size in Aged Mice but Does not Increase Bone Density or Bone Strength.” Exp Gerontol., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Jul. 2013, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3930487/.

What is Sermorelin?

WHave you ever heard of GHRH?  It stands for growth hormone releasing hormone.  Sermorelin is a peptide analog for GHRH. Peptide analogs are typically synthetic short chains of amino acids that mimic or replace naturally occurring substances in the human body.  These peptide analogs can be used as supplements for individuals who struggle to produce adequate levels of chemicals naturally. Conversely, different peptide analogs can be used to leverage, dictate, redirect, or change naturally occurring chemicals to satisfy other desired results.

Note: Sermorelin is offered by gurupeptides.com for research laboratory use only and is no way intended for self-supplementation.

Breakthroughs and Research Success

The medical community has been aware of Sermorelin’s existence for just over thirty years.  Not until the mid 1990’s did technology progress to a point where higher education institutions, universities, and pharmaceutical companies could adequately experiment with Sermorelin.  These different entities have formulated interesting opinions, hypotheses, and research projects relating to the potential benefits of Sermorelin use in humans…

In the late 1980’s, research groups were just starting to understand what Sermorelin was.  In 1987, an elaborate laboratory project observing the effects that Sermorelin had on individuals struggling with human growth hormone deficiency.  The results of the study, though not entirely conclusive, led to a boom in research around the world.  Children suffering from deficiencies much like HGH were a soft spot of medical research at the time. The study concluded that though dosing seemed to be effective in 14 of the 18 patients, ideal dose regimens still needed to be established.

By the time the millennium ended, Sermorelin was widely considered to be one of the more effective and promising treatment methods for individuals suffering from human growth hormone deficiency.  Adis International Limited, a leading international publisher of drug-focused content and solutions from Auckland, New Zealand, completed an impressive report on the observed efficacy of Sermorelin over the course of a 12 month treatment regimen.  In the publication, Adis states that not only does Sermorelin seem to be a stable solution as an HGH deficiency remedy, but it also lacks any real adverse side effects to speak of.  Although the conclusion of the publication described Sermorelin as a “well tolerated” solution, it goes on to admit the end data is still limited, no matter how promising it was.

Fast forwarding several years, Richard F. Walker of the International Society for Applied Research in Aging, published that Sermorelin was undeniably effective when used in human growth hormone regulation and treatment programs.  Though the solution is entirely safe for human supplementation, he goes on to admit there may be a single negative trait to its utilization: morals and ethics.  Walker states, “there is the question of lawful practice” and that the legality of using something to alter natural genetic state could be called into question.


1 Ross, R J, et al. “Treatment of Growth-Hormone Deficiency with Growth-Hormone-Releasing Hormone.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 3 Jan. 1987, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2879138.

2 Prakash, A, and K L Goa. “Sermorelin: a Review of Its Use in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Children with Idiopathic Growth Hormone Deficiency.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Aug. 1999, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18031173.

3 Walker, Richard. “Sermorelin: A better approach to management of adult-onset growth hormone insufficiency?” Clinical Intervention of Aging., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Dec. 2006, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2699646/.

What is Thymosin?

Thymosins are proteins that can be found in almost all animals and their cellular tissues.  First discovered in the 1960’s, Thymosins have been around for almost sixty years. Medicine and technology has come a long way over the past half century, leading to scientists developing medications that leverage the benefits of two major Thymosins, Thymosin Alpha-1 and Thymosin Beta-4.  

Thymosin Alpha-1 is a polypeptide consisting of 28 amino acids.  Its’ molecular formula is C129H215N33O55, and it has a molecular weight of 3108.315.  It has been referred to as Tα1, as well as TA1.

Thymosin Beta-4 is a polypeptide consisting of 43 amino acids.  Its’ molecular formula is C12H35N56O78S, and it has a molecular weight of 4963.4408.  It has also been referred to as Tβ4, as well TB500. And now, it’s available on gurupeptides.com!  

Thymosin Beta-4

Focusing on Thymosin Beta-4 today, it comes from us in a lyophilized white powder form so that you can use it in your laboratory research.  It comes from you in a water-soluble regenerative peptide. Thymosin Beta-4 is something that’s naturally occurring in your body, found in almost all tissues and cell types with the exception of red blood cells.  Every other muscle, bone, or organ cell has a level of Thymosin Beta-4 within their composition. Subsequently, every bodily fluid including tears, saliva, spinal fluid, and semen also contain Thymosin Beta-4 within their composition.

Considered to be a natural building block for tissue repair initially, we now know that Thymosin Beta-4 isn’t just leveraged by an animal’s system to help repair damaged tissues in the self-regenerative process; It is used as a fundamental building block for most cells as well!  The importance of Thymosin Beta-4 isn’t lost on the scientific, medicinal, and pharmaceutical communities. Much research has been completed to help remedy disease.

Research and Case Studies

Despite the fact that the two major types of Thymosin were discovered back in the ‘60s, the technology didn’t exist for real research projects until the 1990’s.  By the time the new millennium rolled around, we had seen some real progress.  Here’s a comprehensive timeline on research and development focused on Thymosin Beta-4:

September 1999 – Representatives in the Craniofacial Developmental Biology and Regeneration Branch of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, located in Bethesda, MD were able to prove that Thymosin Beta-4 was an effective agent to accelerate wound healing.

December 1999 – Across the pond, our UK brethren from the Division of Infection and Immunity, representing the Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences of the University of Glasgow, were able to prove that Thymosin Beta-4 wasn’t just an accelerant of wound healing, but it could be used as an anti-inflammatory agent as well!

2003 – Building on the research finished 4 years beforehand, M. R. Bubb of the Department of Medicine from the University of Florida started to experiment with the interactions and relationships that Thymosin Beta-4 would build with different cells and substances.  His findings showed “thymosin beta 4 has a unique integrative function that links the actin cytoskeleton to important immune and cell growth-signaling cascades.”

February 2004 – A year later, it was proven that Thymosin Beta-4 could be used as an angiogenesis agent, not just a proponent for wound healing.  Perhaps we’re tapping in to our very own fountain of youth…

April 2010 – By the time the most recent decade rolled around, the research had extended to more immediate and practical uses.  The Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery of the University of Texas showed how effective Thymosin Beta-4 could be when directed to healing cardiac injury, laying the groundwork for more potential targeted healing methods.

Present Day

A variety of oils, creams, medications, and supplements leverage thymosin beta-4 these days.  Many healing ointments as well as medications prescribed after surgery are known to read it off in the list of active ingredients.  More research is being conducted, most typically in the realm of ailment curing rather than just treatment. Some institutions are exploring the uses of Thymosin Beta-4 as a potential performance enhancing drug.  Thymosin Beta-4 is definitely here to stay.

1 Malinda, K M, et al. “Thymosin beta4 Accelerates Wound Healing.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Sept. 1999, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10469335.

2 Young, J D, et al. “Thymosin Beta 4 Sulfoxide Is an Anti-Inflammatory Agent Generated by Monocytes in the Presence of Glucocorticoids.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Dec. 1999, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10581087.

3 Bubb, M R. “Thymosin Beta 4 Interactions.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2003, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12852258.

4 Philp, D, et al. “Thymosin beta4 Promotes Angiogenesis, Wound Healing, and Hair Follicle Development.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Feb. 2004, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15037013.

5 Shrivastava, S, et al. “Thymosin beta4 and Cardiac Repair.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Apr. 2010, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20536454.

What is BPC-157?

Another peptide available on gurupeptides.com, BPC-157 has been tested for wound healing properties as well as cytoprotective properties.  Cytoprotection describes a set of processes by which substances, solutions, and chemicals may provide protection to cells against potentially harmful agents or inherent weaknesses.  The driving theory behind its production and distribution is the idea BPC-157 can be used to help heal wounds as well as rejuvenate tendons in animals and humans alike. We offer 100% pure, USA manufactured BPC-157 in 5mg bottles.  Keep in mind that Guru Peptides products are furnished for laboratory research only.

BPC-157 is a Peptide Chain Developed to Help You!

Though all of the chemicals used to comprise BPC-157 are natural, it is still considered to be synthetic as the ingredients are not found in that sequence naturally.  Developed in laboratories around the world, BPC-157 considers of 15 different amino acids. Originally developed to help humans and animals with weak digestive systems, BPC-157 has been proven to protect the stomach and intestinal tract from harmful, outside substances or overactive bile glands.  More recent studies indicate that BPC-157 could be helpful when treating bone and joint damage as well as different inflammatory disorders. More human studies need to be completed for this to be a definite accepted by the medical community, but it shows a lot of promise.

Case Studies – A Brief History

You will find that in the 1990’s there was a boom of research when it comes to peptides and the like.  As technology improved, as did the desire to tackle long-plaguing health issues that seemed to resonate in many humans.  In most scenarios, science and research advances at an impressive rate for twenty years, culminating into manufactured medications to treat humans or animals for a variety of ailments.  The history of BPC-157 investigation follows along those same guidelines that are shared by many of the other peptide substances.

May through October 1997 – A large team of representatives and staff from the Centre for Digestive Disease of the Medical and Veterinary Faculty University in Zagreb, Croatia formed a comprehensive report on the impact that BPC-157 had on animals.  The results yielded significant differences between the treated animals and the control group, leading to future investigations.

March 2010 – Multiple studies like this one have been completed worldwide.  Another team from Croatia decided to build on the decade of research that has been completed internally to this point.  They determined that “BPC-157 completely reversed systemic corticosteroid-impaired muscle healing.” As of 2010 we could definitively say that BPC-157 can help to repair muscle mass in both animals and people.

November 2014 – If it’s possible to repair damaged muscles with BPC-157, why not try to repair damaged tendons?  That’s exactly what a team of scientists from Taiwan thought. They were able to focus the BPC-157 treatments to increase the growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts, leading to damaged tendon recovery.

These days, BPC-157 is used in a variety of medications around the world!

1 Seiwerth, S, et al. “BPC 157’s Effect on Healing.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1997, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9403790.

2 Pevec, D, et al. “Impact of Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on Muscle Healing Impaired by Systemic Corticosteroid Application.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Mar. 2010, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20190676.

3 Chang, C H, et al. “Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Enhances the Growth Hormone Receptor Expression in Tendon Fibroblasts.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 19 Nov. 2014, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25415472.

What is Albuterol?

Newly for sale on gurupeptides.com, Albuterol!  Keeping in mind that our products are manufactured and distributed with the sole purpose of research and development in mind, the introductory price on USA made Albuterol is going to be tough to beat!  Like our other β2-adrenergic receptor agonists, Albuterol comes in small, 60ml vials and is 100% pure, suspended in Polyethylene glycol.

In an effort to provide our readers with the full disclosure that you’ve come to expect from gurupeptides.com, make sure you understand that albuterol may be marketed under a few different names.  Salbutamol and Ventolin are two of the most common alternatives, with the latter being a medication in which the albuterol is the active ingredient.

Albuterol Primary Use

There are almost 30 years of thorough studies regarding the efficacy of Albuterol when it comes to lung capacity and health improvements.  In 1992, a group from the Department of Pharmacy Practice from the University of Florida determined that inhaler delivered albuterol had undeniably beneficial lung effects.  All twelve participants in the study reported noticeable improvement in breathing capabilities.  The Albuterol opens up the larger pathways in the lungs to help treat individuals with asthma and bronchoconstriction.  


Bronchoconstriction describes the constriction of airways that are connected to the lungs.  Sometimes people struggle to breath in when these airways are constricted, as you’d expect. Less common but arguably more alarming is the possibility that some people struggle to breathe out when these airways are constricted.  The result can be fatal but usually leads to uncontrollable coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and sometimes the breathing struggles can lead to muscle strains or pulls, particularly in the chest.

Treatments and doses can vary depending on the severity of the situation, but the most effective seems to be nebulizer treatment.  Albuterol can be used to free up the airways, much like in asthma patients, and allow the subject to breathe freely.

Alternate Use Cases

While the primary use is always going to be lung health improvement or asthma attack prevention, the medical community has determined there may be other uses for albuterol-based medications.  For instance, damage caused as a result of smoke inhalation. Lung capacity can be forever weakened after extended periods of smoke inhalation. A group of specialists from Shriners Hospitals for Children in Northern California and the University of California-Davis teamed up to explore the use of albuterol as a treatment method for individuals suffering from what was thought to be permanent lung or airway damage as a result of smoke inhalation.  They found that “continuous nebulization of albuterol improves pulmonary function via improved airway clearance and decreased fluid flux in a combined burn/smoke inhalation injury model.”  The Beta-2 agonist treatment could be a therapy method for people suffering from inhalation injuries!

Future Use Cases

Other similar research projects have been completed showing that albuterol is a beneficial beta-2 agonist for assisting in the lung healing process as a result of trauma.  Whether smoke inhalation, disease, virus, or infection, the hope is that albuterol can assist in the cure of lung damage and airway constriction.

1 Blake, K V, et al. “Relative Amount of Albuterol Delivered to Lung Receptors from a Metered-Dose Inhaler and Nebulizer Solution. Bioassay by Histamine Bronchoprovocation.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Feb. 1992, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1310456.

2 Spooner, L M, and J L Olin. “Paradoxical Bronchoconstriction with Albuterol Administered by Metered-Dose Inhaler and Nebulizer Solution.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Nov. 2005, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16174783.

3 Palmieri, T L, et al. “Continuous Nebulized Albuterol Attenuates Acute Lung Injury in an Ovine Model of Combined Burn and Smoke Inhalation.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 2006, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16607229.

What is Dapoxetine?

Dapoxetine.  Another product we are offering at a special price to meet all of your laboratory research and development needs.  Coming in 30ML bottles, dapoxetine is a synthetic substance that typically inhibits the serotonin transporter found in every human.  The serotonin transporter is really just a protein found in the SLC6A4 gene.

Though we offer pure, unadulterated dapoxetine, there are medications already available on the market that use dapoxetine as the number one active ingredient.  Priligy and Westoxetin are among the most popular and are typically prescribed to healthy men struggling with premature ejaculation. These are almost always men that haven’t hit the golden years just yet.

It’s Only Purpose

Being the first drug formulated to treat premature ejaculation, there is no shortage of test research and patient reviews available.  The prescription versions of dapoxetine have only been around for a handful of years. First discovered in the last 2000’s, it wasn’t until 2012 that a true benefit-risk assessment was conducted by an objective third party.  Found to be mostly safe and effective to treat the most common sexual problem affecting men, Dapoxetine research really got its wings.

Once medications started to get approved from manufacturing, the customer reviews started to flow in.  On any given men’s health website or magazine, there is likely to be some report on the benefits and effects of dapoxetine supplementation.  After half a decade of ubiquity in prescriptions by primary care physicians for me, a review of the efficacy and safety was completed by a team from Milan, Italy.  The experienced medical team found the extended treatment of premature ejaculation with dapoxetine supplementation is both safe and effective.

Adverse Effects

The low amount of adverse effects is what helps the dapoxetine prescription case.  We’ve already determined it’s safe, but how safe? Well, the only real side effects ever reported are dry mouth, headache, nausea, and occasional dizziness.  Assuming the dosage is taken responsibly, most people do not feel any adverse side effects at all.

Worth noting: There has never been any case of drug overdose reported by any patient, ever.

Discontinuation Rates are High

Despite the fact that dapoxetine based medications are really effective with minimal side effects, discontinuation rates remain high.  Some people aren’t properly educated and inevitably stop using dapoxetine after they don’t see results in treating sexual dysfunction. They believe that sexual dysfunction can be treated with dapoxetine but that’s simply not the case.  Premature ejaculation is the only ailment that dapoxetine should be used to treat.A paper was published by the Department of Urology and Medical Research Institute and the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, both of the Pusan National University Hospital.  The joint findings state that the leading cause for discontinuation is cost.  It is expensive to manufacture dapoxetine based medications, driving up the total sales price.  High costs lead to men frequently choosing to buy their prescription in spurts as opposed to continuously supplement.  Once somebody perfects a cheaper way to manufacture, costs could drop low enough for an increase in extended use.

1 Hutchinson, K, et al. “A Benefit-Risk Assessment of Dapoxetine in the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 May 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22452563.

2 Russo, A, et al. “Efficacy and Safety of Dapoxetine in Treatment of Premature Ejaculation: an Evidence-Based Review.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Sept. 2016, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27456527.

3 Hyun Jun Park, MD, PhD, Nam Cheol Park, MD, PhD, Tae Nam Kim, MD, Seung Ryong Baek, MD, Kyung Min Lee, MS, and Sangmin Choe, MD. “Discontinuation of Dapoxetine Treatment in Patients With Premature Ejaculation: A 2-Year Prospective Observational Study.” Sex Med., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Jun. 2017, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5440632/.

What is Cabergoline?

Approved by the Food and Drug Administration for manufacturing and prescription use in humans, Cabergoline is one of the newer substances we offer in its purest form on gurupeptides.com.  As with all of our products, our USA made Cabergoline is intended to be used in research laboratories for study purposes only.  Even though the substances is FDA approved, you should not ingest our Cabergoline.

There are other names that Cabergoline can go by, even in the United States market.  Dostinex is the most well known and most frequently used prescription drug that contains Cabergoline as the active ingredient.  Coming in tablet form, it is a stark difference from the pure form we offer for your research. All prescription versions are going to come in tablet form for easy oral ingestion.

What is it Used for?

Derived from a type of ergot fungus, is a potent dopamine receptor and a pituitary gland inhibitor.  When prescribed by a doctor, it is most frequently used as the first line of defense against hyperprolactinemia.  Prolactin is the hormone that’s produced by the pituitary glands in all humans and most other mammals.  Having an over abundance of the prolactin hormone in your system leads to a condition called hyperprolactinemia.  Individuals suffering from hyperprolactinemia typically produce erratic amounts of other important hormones like estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone.  Erratic and inconsistent levels of these other hormones can lead to the following problems in both men and women:

  • Discharge from nipples
  • Reduced sexual desire
  • Infertility
  • Unexpected changes in appetite
  • Hypothalamic disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Prolactinoma (cancerous tumor)
  • Hypothyroidism

Potential Side Effects

There is no shortage of side effects when it comes to Cabergoline.  Most of the side effects are not very serious at all while some could be considered life threatening if not addressed.  As is the case with most hormone altering medications, Cabergoline supplementation has been known to alter moods and increase the frequency and severity of mood changes.  Sudden weight gain and lack of energy can be expected as your hormones reach normal levels. Even hallucinations, though rare, have been reported on a number of occasions.  The other common side effects include nausea, heartburn, dizziness, and constipation. To counteract, drink fluids and avoid dosing on an empty stomach.

The more serious side effects that need to be reported to a physician include chest pains, stomach lumps and/or pain, breast lumps and/or pain, a complete lack of urination, and the usual signs of allergic reaction.  Ignoring these symptoms can lead to potentially life threatening problems.

Efficacy of Cabergoline

For 25 years, Cabergoline has been known to be effective when treating hyperprolactinemia.  As time marched on, scientists like this reputable team from the Department of Molecular and Clinical Endocrinology and Oncology of the Federico II University of Naples explored the potential for Cabergoline to be used to fight against tumors in the pituitary glands.  Through the years, results have been perfected and the medical community appears to be inches away from discovering a pituitary tumor defeating, Cabergoline-based medication now that we are combatting HGH induced problems!

1 Verhelst, J, et al. “Cabergoline in the Treatment of Hyperprolactinemia: a Study in 455 Patients.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 1999, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10404830.

2 Rains, C P, et al. “Cabergoline. A Review of Its Pharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Potential in the Treatment of Hyperprolactinaemia and Inhibition of Lactation.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Feb. 1995, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7729332.

3 Colao, A, et al. “Long-Term and Low-Dose Treatment with Cabergoline Induces Macroprolactinoma Shrinkage.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Nov. 1997, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9360509.

4 Kuhn, E, and P Chanson. “Cabergoline in Acromegaly.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Feb. 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28025719.

What is Clomiphene?

First developed in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s, Clomiphene is a substance that is regularly used in medications prescribed to women that struggle to produce eggs but want to bare a child.  Most frequently marketed under the name brand Serophene, Clomiphene has been regularly treating infertility in women for the better part of four decades now.

Clomiphene, sometimes written as Clomifene, was approved for medical use in the United States, back in 1967.  Attractive because it is a synthetic selective estrogen receptor modulator, or SERM, that doesn’t cost much to manufacture.  This keeps the sale and resale price reasonably low. On gurupeptides.com, we offer pure, USA developed Clomiphene for research uses at a modest price of $27.99 for 30ml.

Assisted Reproductive Technology

Clomiphene’s discovery and efficacy ushered in a new era for fertility treatment.  A whole new arm of medicine was created as a result of the acceptance of a safe female fertility product.  Medications to increase sperm count as well as other substances that improve egg or sperm health have been researched, developed, and approved because of the success of Clomiphene.  

In the most recent phases of assisted reproductive technology, sexual intercourse is bypassed completely.  In vitro fertilization has allowed people that couldn’t find a partner or weren’t able to have intercourse for medical reasons to bare their own children.  As time marches on assisted reproductive technology methods continue to flourish as modern technology gets better.

Clomiphene Adverse Effects

Any time you’re altering natural estrogen levels or naturally occurring processes that rely on estrogen, you’re going to be opening the door to uncomfortable side effects.  Being one of the most key hormones in humans, this comes as no surprise. Here are a list of the most common side effects that women supplementing with clomiphene have to prepare for:

  • Uterine bleeding alterations – Menstruation cycles are most frequently affected when estrogen levels are altered in women.  Some may bleed more profusely or more frequently. Some women may go completely unaffected while still others spot periodically nearly daily.
  • Cysts and Ovarian Enlargement – Unfortunately, a little over a third of the women who use clomiphene are going to develop ovarian cysts.  Most women view it as a small price to pay. Cysts are relatively harmless but uncomfortable so long as they’re monitored.
  • Headache/Nausea/Stomach Pain – To be expected.  Found with almost every SERM or SARM.

Individuals who are particularly sensitive to the medication may experience visual disturbances or hallucinations.  These seem extremely infrequent and are rarely a concern of physicians.

Undeniably Effective

There are any number of studies available to the public that support clomiphene and the fast and favorable results it relentlessly brings to the table.  In fact, in recent years, some of the most learned people in the medical community have been comparing clomiphene to other alternatives and have found that clomiphene is “still the first-line therapy for ovulation induction.”  The only alarming point worth mentioning is that while Clomiphene yields significantly better pregnancy results, the alternatives may have lower miscarriage rates than Clomiphene.

1 Rodin, D A, et al. “Cycle Abnormalities in Infertile Women with Regular Menstrual Cycles: Effects of Clomiphene Citrate Treatment.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 1994, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8005302.

2 Csokmay, J M, and J L Frattarelli. “Basal Ovarian Cysts and Clomiphene Citrate Ovulation Induction Cycles.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 2006, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16738154.

3 Sovino, H, et al. “Clomiphene Citrate and Ovulation Induction.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12709286.

4 Fariba Seyedoshohadaei, M.D., Farnaz Zandvakily, M.D., and Shole Shahgeibi, M.D. “Comparison of the effectiveness of clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen and letrozole in ovulation induction in infertility due to isolated unovulation.” Iran Journal of Reproductive Medicine., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Nov. 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12709286.

What is Avanafil?

Currently on sale for $10 off the regular price on gurupeptides.com, is Avanafil.  Our Avanafil is 100% pure, manufactured right here in the United States, and is sold with only laboratory research in mind.  Only approved in 2012 by the FDA for mass production and public consumption, Avanafil is the active ingredient in a couple of trademarked prescription medications.  Both Stendra and Spedra are frequently prescribed by primary care physicians and specialists alike to help treat men suffering from erectile dysfunction. The prescribed medications are almost always in the form of tablets or capsules that are to be taken orally.

Side Effects

There are a variety of side effects when it comes to Avanafil supplementation, both in lab studies performed on test animals, and in humans that have been using for months or years.  The most common adverse effects documented are the traditional ones that most hormone altering medications induce. Headaches, dizziness, slight nausea, and hot flashes happen frequently enough that they should be expected when using Avanafil based products.  

The less common side effects are going to be a little more serious, but they’re still nothing to be overly concerned about.  Sexual activity has been reported to induce some extra stress on the heart in Avanafil users. Higher blood pressure and some light chest pains have been reported, most notably during or after sexual activity.

The most serious side effects are extremely rare but worth noting.  In testing, a select few subjects reported a sudden decrease in hearing or vision.  Some of these problems were reportedly permanent changes and the senses never returned to normal.  People struggling with heart disease or diabetes should avoid Avanafil supplementation entirely to prevent these extreme side effects.

Avanafil Case Studies – Extremely Effective

So we know that Avanafil is used to treat men (and their women) suffering from erectile dysfunction, but just how effective is it?  There are other alternatives that could be used to treat the condition, so why do physicians prefer to treat with Avanafil based medications?

Well, for starters, it happens extremely quickly.  Some people use the more popular and expensive medications that have been available for decades, like Viagra.  Viagra uses sildenafil citrate, which needs to be consumed 60 minutes before sexual activity. Avanafil based medications can be used just 15 minutes prior to intercourse!  What’s more, there is no reason to be concerned about a four to six hour erection after ejaculation as is the case with sildenafil citrate medications.

Why So Effective?

According to the National Library of Medicine, Avanafil is in the class of medications and substances called phosphodiesterase.  Phosphodiesterase (PDE) substances are enzymes that break a phosphodiester bond, or bonds between successive sugar molecules. Avanafil essentially manipulates these bonded molecules to increase blood flow to the penis when aroused.  Though Avanafil doesn’t technically cure somebody of erectile dysfunction, it will certainly improve blood flow in the nether regions so that the nagging issue is no longer a problem for men to struggle with!

Zurawin, J L, et al. “Avanafil for the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Sept. 2016, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27416913.

Hellstrom, W J, et al. “Efficacy of Avanafil 15 Minutes after Dosing in Men with Erectile Dysfunction: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Study.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Aug. 2015, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25591992.